Swollen nails/Clubbing of nails

You might have noticed that the nail anatomy in many individuals is always different.

Some people have nice, straight nails, some have nails with stripes of white , some have cracked nails and others may have clubbed nails.

Nail morphology tells us different things about the health and state of individuals.

Nail clubbing  is the uniform swelling of the soft tissue of the nails leading to the subsequent loss of the normal angle between the nail and the nail bed.

The major causes of nail clubbing are ;

1)pulmonary diseases e.g lug cancer, cystic fibrosis,lipoid pneumonia,pulmonary hypertension among others.

2)Cardiac /heart diseases e.g congenital heart disease.

3)Gastrointestinal diseases e.g Ulcerative colitis,crohns disease, cirrhosis

4)Some skin diseases eg  palmoplantar keratoderma.

5)Malignancies e.g thyroid cancer, Hodgkins disease.

6)Pregnancy,sickle cell disease,secondary hyperthyroidsm.

Adopted from Medscape.