Head trauma are documented to be the leading cause of death in children and adults aged 45 years and below in the United States(McGraw-Hill:1996,Trauma). The boom of motorcycle business in major developing countries has also contributed to this among other common causes mainly accidents or conflicts.
Severe head injury may lead to death in most cases and those who survive are left with neurological deficits.
Head injuries can be classified as primary or secondary.
Primary head injuries are caused by structural damage or changes e.g knock or bang on the head that can cause accumulation of blood. Scientifically can be described as epidural hematoma , subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Concussions may also occur where the person has an altered state and may or may not loose consciousness.
Secondary head injuries are injuries to the brain that can be due to or caused by bleeding, lack of oxygen to the brain(hemorrhage), edema,raised pressure in the cranium, infections to the brain ,anemia,epilepsy and hyperglycemia.
Imaging studies are important to evaluate the extent of damage especially the use of CT scanning.